Encoding Validation

Ciris intentionally forces you to encode validation in your data types. This means that you have to put more thought into your configurations, and in turn, your domain models. For example, if you want to load an API key, you probably don’t want it to be any String (not empty) and if you want to load a port value, you probably don’t want it to be any Int (valid ports are 0 to 65535).

By using more precise types, we get type-safety and a guarantee that values conform to our requirements throughout the application. One of the easiest ways to encode validation in data types is by using refined. Ciris provides a ciris-refined module which allows you to read any refined type. You can also get compile-time validation for literals from refined (supported by macros).

Let’s modify the configuration seen in Usage Basics to use refined types.

import eu.timepit.refined.auto._
// import eu.timepit.refined.auto._

import eu.timepit.refined.types.net.PortNumber
// import eu.timepit.refined.types.net.PortNumber

import eu.timepit.refined.types.string.NonEmptyString
// import eu.timepit.refined.types.string.NonEmptyString

import scala.concurrent.duration._
// import scala.concurrent.duration._

final case class Config(
  apiKey: NonEmptyString,
  timeout: Duration,
  port: PortNumber
// defined class Config

Here we’ve said that the API key must be a non-empty String and that the port number must be an Int between 0 and 65535. We could also require that the timeout must be finite and within a certain range, but since it’s always specified in the code, it’s arguably harder to get wrong. Now, let’s see how we can simply change the types to read in the env and prop methods to the refined types, and how Ciris will take care of loading them for you.

import ciris._
// import ciris._

import ciris.refined._
// import ciris.refined._

val config =
  ) { (apiKey, port) =>
      apiKey = apiKey,
      timeout = 10 seconds,
      port = port getOrElse 4000
// config: Either[ciris.ConfigErrors,Config] = Left(ConfigErrors(MissingKey(API_KEY, Environment)))